How are the waves formed ?



Ocean waves are waves that occur on the surface of the water and can travel thousands of kilometers growing in size.
The largest tend to form offshore, while those that occur near the coast tend to be smaller.

How are the waves formed?

They arise from variations in temperature and pressure in the atmosphere.

Low pressure centers, called storms, and high pressure centers, called anticyclones; they give rise to air movements. The wind that is produced in this process, travels from the places with more pressure to those with less. The greater the pressure difference between one point and another, the greater the speed it will reach.

With sandy bottom they change constantly, depending on the tides and currents.

The friction of the wind on the surface of the sea water forms small waves. As this friction grows, the size of the ripples also grows, producing giant waves.

These are the different types of waves:

According to the direction they break

Right-hand waves: they have a peak in the highest area, which breaks progressively towards that direction (left if you look at it from the beach).

Left waves: the same as the previous ones, but they move in the opposite direction.

Peak or mixed wave: breaks in both directions.

Cerrote: they do not have a beak, but they break completely at once.

According to your place of training

Wind: they occur due to the effect of the wind on sea water. Normally, they tend to be created a short distance from the coast and in a short time, due to the changes of the air gusts. They tend to be small and unstable, in many cases breaking abruptly.

Deep sea or swell: they are the largest, they occur thousands of kilometers away from the place where they break and are not affected by the wind.

According to the type of seabed

With a sandy bottom: they are less dangerous, they are not always the same over time and they change constantly depending on the tides and currents.

Rock bottom: the ground is very stable, resulting in very constant waves, with similar peaks. However, they are very dangerous for swimming or surfing.

Coral bottom: they are very stable and have the advantage that they are more oxygenated waters, so it is easier to see what is underneath.

According to its category

Oscillatory: also known as free waves, are those that occur at variations in sea level, forming on the surface of the same. They usually occur many kilometers from the coast.

Translation: they occur when the sea advances and crashes against the seabed, rising and changing the surface. They usually occur near the coast, where the variation of the seabed is most noticeable. They tend to foam a lot when breaking.

Forced: they usually occur because of the storms that form in the sea. They are not very stable and it is difficult to predict what they will be like when they reach shore.

Seismic: popularly known as tsunamis, they are caused by earthquakes, volcanic explosions and the movement of tectonic plates on the seabed.

The greater the pressure difference, the greater the speed the wave reaches.

According to its shape when breaking

Hollow: they are those in which the crest of the wave exceeds the base of it, forming a cylindrical shape inside. They are perfect for surfing.

Tubes: the upper part rises so much that it closes a tube inside.

Wavy: the base of the wave is more advanced than the highest part. In many cases they do not break or are all foam.

Banks: they are those that break very close to the shore, without too much volume.